The founding fathers of the Non-Aligned Movement were Josip Broz Tito of Socialist Yugoslavia, Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Sukarno of Indonesia, Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana. Their actions were known as 'The Initiative of Five'. The Non-Aligned Movement as an organization was founded on the Brijuni islands in Yugoslavia in 1956, and was formalized by signing the Declaration of Brijuni on July 19th, 1956. The Declaration was signed by Yugoslavia's president, Josip Broz Tito, India's first prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru and Egypt's second president, Gamal Abdel Nasser. One of the quotations within the Declaration is "Peace can not be achieved with separation, but the aspiration towards collective security in global terms and expansion of freedom, as well as terminating the domination of one country over another".
But it soon after became the name to refer to the participants of the Conference of Heads of State or Government of Non-Aligned Countries first held in 1961. The term "non-alignment" was established in 1953 at the United Nations. Nehru used the phrase in a 1954 speech in Colombo, Sri Lanka. In this speech, Nehru described the five pillars to be used as a guide for Sino-Indian relations called Panchsheel (five restraints); these principles would later serve as the basis of the Non-Aligned Movement. The five principles were:
Mutual respect for each other's territorial integrity and sovereignty.
Mutual non-interference in domestic affairs.
Equality and mutual benefit.
The Non-Aligned Movement espouses policies and practices of cooperation, especially those that are multilateral and provide mutual benefit to all those involved. Many of the members of the Non-Aligned Movement are also members of the United Nations. Both organisations have a stated policy of peaceful cooperation, yet the successes the NAM has had with multilateral agreements tend to be ignored by the larger, western and developed nation dominated UN. African concerns about apartheid were linked with Arab-Asian concerns about Palestine and multilateral cooperation in these areas has enjoyed moderate success. The Non-Aligned Movement has played a major role in various ideological conflicts throughout its existence, including extreme opposition to apartheid governments and support of guerrilla movements in various locations, including Rhodesia and South Africa.
In recent years the organization has criticized certain aspects of US foreign policy. The 2003 invasion of Iraq and the War on Terrorism, its attempts to stifle Iran and North Korea's nuclear plans, and its other actions have been denounced by some members of the Non-Aligned Movement as attempts to run roughshod over the sovereignty of smaller nations; at the most recent summit, Kim Yong-nam, the head of North Korea's parliament, stated that, "The United States is attempting to deprive other countries of even their legitimate right to peaceful nuclear activities.
Assessment: 1. What is NAM, and what purpose was it formed? 2. In what way(s) does the specter of colonialism influence the non-alignment movement 3. Is the modern NAM in alignment with Nehru's original idea? 4. What is the relationship between NAM and the Pan African Movement? 5. Has Pan Africanism benefited the people of Africa, why or why not? 6. Is NAM necessary in the 21st Century? If so, explain why. If not, explain why the organization still exists.